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Fevereiro 27, 2024
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Non Signatories to Arbitration Agreement in India

Non-Signatories to Arbitration Agreement in India: A Look at the Legal Framework

Arbitration has become a popular method of resolving disputes in India, as it offers a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to traditional litigation. However, not all parties may have agreed to submit their disputes to arbitration, leading to the question of whether non-signatories can still be compelled to arbitrate. This article will examine the legal framework surrounding non-signatories to arbitration agreements in India.

Arbitration Agreement and Its Parties

An arbitration agreement is a contract between two or more parties to submit their disputes to arbitration. The agreement may be contained in a separate document or incorporated into a larger contract. The parties to the arbitration agreement are bound to submit their disputes to arbitration and cannot pursue litigation in court unless the arbitration agreement is invalid or unenforceable.

Non-Signatories and Their Obligations

A non-signatory is a party that has not signed the arbitration agreement but may still be affected by it. Non-signatories may include affiliates, subsidiaries, successors, assignees, and third-party beneficiaries. Whether a non-signatory can be compelled to arbitrate depends on the nature of their relationship with the signatories and the specific circumstances of the dispute.

Doctrine of Group of Companies

The doctrine of group of companies is a common law principle that recognizes the economic reality that separate legal entities may be part of a single economic entity. Under this doctrine, a non-signatory may be bound by an arbitration agreement if it can be established that the signatory and non-signatory are part of the same group of companies and the dispute arises out of the same transaction or series of transactions. The Indian courts have applied this doctrine in several cases, including Chloro Controls (India) Private Limited v. Severn Trent Water Purification Inc., and Enercon (India) Ltd. v. Enercon GmbH.

Agency and Succession

Another scenario where a non-signatory may be bound by an arbitration agreement is when they act as an agent of the signatory or succeed to their rights and obligations. For example, if a signatory assigns its contract to a third party, the assignee may be required to arbitrate any disputes arising out of the contract. Similarly, if the signatory and non-signatory are part of a joint venture or partnership, they may be treated as a single entity and bound by the arbitration agreement.

Equitable Estoppel

Equitable estoppel is a legal principle that prevents a party from denying a fact or claim that they have previously represented or acted upon. In the context of arbitration, equitable estoppel may be applied to prevent a non-signatory from avoiding arbitration if they have benefitted from the arbitration agreement or have induced the signatory to enter into the agreement. For example, if a non-signatory has received a performance guarantee or security deposit pursuant to the contract containing the arbitration agreement, they may be estopped from denying its validity.


The legal framework surrounding non-signatories to arbitration agreements in India is complex and fact-specific. Parties seeking to enforce arbitration agreements against non-signatories should carefully examine the nature of their relationship with the signatories and the circumstances of the dispute. While the Indian courts have recognized the doctrine of group of companies, agency and succession, and equitable estoppel as potential bases for binding non-signatories to arbitration, each case will ultimately turn on its own facts and evidence. As such, parties are advised to seek legal advice before commencing arbitration proceedings against non-signatories.